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金线莲种子怎么播种 金线莲育苗技术_农业网_农业新闻

时间:10-19来源:农业旅游作者:农业旅游

金线莲种子怎么播种

金线莲育苗技术

说到金线莲,不知道大家是否对金线莲的种子有所了解。众所周知目前野生的金线莲越来越少,金线莲越来越昂贵,那么我们对于金线莲的种子应该如何种植和培育呢?那么我们一起来了解一下金线莲的培育技术,一起来学习种植金线莲吧。

金线莲种子怎么播种

金线莲的种子极细,种子内仅有一个发育不完全的胚,发芽力很低,加之种皮不易吸收水分,用常规方法播种不能萌发,故需要用兰菌或人工培养基来供给养分,才能萌发,播种最好选用尚未开裂的果实,表面用75%的酒精灭菌后,取出种子,用10%次氯酸钠浸泡5-10分钟,取出再用无菌水冲洗3次即可播于盛有培养基的培养瓶内,然后置暗培养室中,温度保持25C左右,萌动后再移至光下即能形成原球茎。金线莲从播种到移植,需时半年到一年。组织培养已获成功,有条件的地方可用此法繁殖。

金线莲育苗技术

1、配制培养基:按特定的配方要求进行培养基配制,将配制好的培养基包装好,放入高压消毒锅中消毒,经过消毒的培养基或直接使用或保存在无菌接种室内待用,但存放时问不宜超过两周。

2、切取外植体、灭菌接种:在无菌条件下,从植物优良母株上切取适当长度的器官(茎尖、茎段、叶、芽、根)外植体,接种培养基中,放入培养室诱导。

3、丛苗诱导、分化诱导:在培养室温度为20~28℃,光强3000~4000Lux的荧光灯12~16小时的光照下,同时在培养基中高浓度的细胞分裂素和低浓度生长素的作用下,促使外植体分化丛生芽。

4、继代增殖:丛生芽在培养基中生长一段时问(通常20~30天)后,随着培养基养分消耗,必须转移至新鲜培养基培养,即继代培养。为扩大繁殖速度与繁殖系数,要进行继代转移,可通过改变培养条件,如在较低温度下培养几天,再转到另一较高温度下培养几天,或通过液体振荡培养一定时间,可显著提高增殖速度。

5、生根诱导:待芽苗长到一定高度时,转移至生长素浓度较高的生根培养基上继续培养,先对嫩苗进行一周暗培养,再转入正常光照,或缩短光照,可提早生根并提高生根率及生根速度。

6、小苗移栽炼苗:将已生根的小苗从培养室移到室外土壤,培育成为合格的造林苗木。

7、小苗分级:按小苗质量指标,对小苗进行分级,一、二级苗要适时移栽,三级苗继续培养。

8、炼苗:通常用增强光照的办法进行一周左右炼苗,或在培养基中加入延缓剂,在移栽前1~2天把小苗连同培养瓶一起由培养室移至温室,并将瓶塞打开。

9、移栽:当根系长到1厘米左右时,小心从培养瓶中取出小苗,用清水洗去培养基,切忌伤植株。先将小苗在较稀的硫酸钠溶液中浸泡几分钟后再移栽,喷透水,用塑料薄膜覆盖,以防风保湿。

10、移栽后管理:移栽后初期适当遮荫,防止阳光直射,以后逐渐增加光照时间和强度,温度控制在20~30℃,要适当浇水保湿,控制土壤水分,逐步实施全光照。当炼苗一段时间后,幼苗已完全适应自然环境条件时,可移植到轻基质网袋内,待苗木符合标准时即可出圃。

金线莲怎么病虫害防治

一、虫害

1、软体动物蜗牛和蛞蝓。吃金线莲柔软组织如根端、嫩芽等,严重影响生长。

2、红蜘蛛及螨类。以成虫和若虫在叶片上吸取汁液,造成被害叶面出现黄色小点,严重时变黄枯焦,直至脱落,植株枯死。

3、小地老虎。3龄前幼虫取食金线莲的心叶、叶片吃成小刻口或呈网孔状,3龄后幼虫将金线莲幼苗从近地面的嫩茎咬断,造成缺苗断垄。

4、蝼蛄。在土中咬食幼苗根茎,呈乱麻状断头,造成幼苗死亡,并使土表层窜成许多隆起的隧道,使幼苗根与土壤分离,失水干枯死亡。

二、病害

1、猝倒病。主要为镰刀菌危害引起,病苗茎基部出现黄褐色水渍状病斑,很快发展至绕茎一周,病部组织腐烂干枯溢缩呈线状。病势发展迅速,幼苗迅速倒伏死亡,出现猝倒现象。

2、软腐病。属细菌性病害,主要为害中下部内茎和近地表叶片的叶柄。发病初期很难察觉,中期病症在茎基约3cm的表皮外出现褐色的坏死斑,叶脉上出现褐色湿腐。植株中下部叶发黄,高温下呈萎蔫状,后期表现为全株蔫枯,直立不倒状,用手轻折即断。

金线莲的种植条件

1、选址建棚:金线莲种植选择地势开阔、座北朝南、周围有高大阔叶林、远离污染源的地段,搭建抗风能力强的大棚,棚顶及四周先覆盖薄膜再盖上遮阳网便于控制棚内温度、光照、湿度。

2、安装铁架:金线莲生产上通常采用种植铁架摆放种植托盘,栽培基质置于托盘内,铁架宽1米、高1.5米,长度依大棚而定,分3层种植,层间距45厘米,两排铁架之间保持60~80厘米。

3、茬口安排:金线莲在生产上通常一年种植两季,第一季3月初移栽,6月下旬采收,第二季9月初移栽,12月下旬采收,确保植株在土壤中生长4个月以上,以提高产量和产品的药性成份。

4、基质选择:金线莲栽培通常按泥炭土:谷壳:细沙=10:1:1配置栽培基质,对栽培基质进行日晒消毒后每100公斤栽培基质中加入5~7.5公斤熟石灰或适量的50%多菌灵可湿性粉剂拌匀。

金线莲的生长环境十分苛刻,对于天然林木的要求也是极其高的,对于我们人工培育金线莲其成本也是很高的。对于我们培育金线莲也应该注意很多方面,在育苗的技术方面也不是一日便可以学成的。


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  1. 模型: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.fjhnews.com/twcms/model/
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  6. 当前时间: 2019-11-19 08:26:21
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  8. 请求路径: /jrpp/8064.html
  9. 运行时间: 0.2992
  10. 内存开销: 1.45 MB
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