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桔梗如何种植  桔梗科学种植技术

时间:11-01来源:农业旅游作者:农业旅游

桔梗如何种植

 桔梗科学种植技术

桔梗作为中草药的一种,在中药中的应用是比较早的,而桔梗的种植时间则并不长,过去桔梗大多数是由药农亲自采摘,随着现代科技的发展,桔梗也逐渐成为药农的一项重要的种植产业。

桔梗如何种植

1、苗土整理

洋桔梗种子播种前先准备好育苗土或者是育苗块,为了方便些可以尽量用单独的育苗小盆种,这样可以避免发芽时间不一样而发生的徒长现象。然后装好土后用喷壶喷一下,下面再坐在大些的水盆里,这样就可以让土整个全部湿透。

2、播种方法

桔梗的种子特别细小,像灰尘一样,哪怕喘个大气儿都好像要被吹飞,所以一定要小心,最好是有东西在下面接着,铺一层白纸,这样即使是不小心掉了,也不怕找不到它。然后有牙签稍粘点水,在种子上点一下,就粘到牙签上了,再往育苗盆里种就方便多了。需要注意的是洋桔梗的种子是不需要在上面盖土的,就直接放在土的表面就可以了。

3、播后保湿

桔梗的种子放好后上面如果有盖子可以盖上保湿,如果没有盖子的,可以盖一层家里用的保鲜膜,这样可以保持湿度,每天打开透透气就可以了。也可以每天拿特别细小的喷壶喷喷水,如果觉得掌握不好,可以直接坐在水盆里保持湿度。但一定记得,不要24小时放在里面,只要每天轻轻喷喷或者坐一会儿就可以了。种子也需要呼吸的,泡久了种子会泡坏,反而不容易发芽。

4、发芽管理

洋桔梗种子播后一般15~20天左右就会发芽了,晚一些的也有30天发的。一定要有耐心,不要放弃它们,在没发芽之前一直要保持湿度。发芽以后就不用盖盖子了,可以晒散光,但千万不要暴晒,因为刚发芽的小苗很脆弱的,一晒很容易就干吧死。这时也不用天天放在水盆里了,看稍干点了再放就可以,刚出芽的尽量轻轻喷,因为小苗很小,一用力喷就会倒的。

桔梗的生长特性

桔梗为深根性植物,根粗随年龄而增大,当年主根长可达15厘米以上,第二年的7-9月为根的旺盛生长期。采挖时,根长可达50厘米,幼苗出土至抽茎6厘米以前,茎的生长缓慢,茎高6厘米至开花前(4-5月)生长加快,开花后减慢。至秋冬气温10℃以下时倒苗,根在地下越冬,一年生苗可在零下17℃的低温下安全越冬。种子在10℃以上时开始发芽,发芽最适温度在20-25℃,一年生种子发芽率为50%-60%,二年生种子发芽率可达85%左右。且出芽快而齐。种子寿命为一年。

桔梗喜凉爽湿润环境,野生多见于向阳山坡及草丛中,栽培时宜选择海拔1100米以下的丘陵地带,对土质要求不严,但以栽培在富含磷、钾的中性类沙土里生长较好,追施磷肥,可以提高根的折干率。桔梗喜阳光耐干旱,但忌积水。

桔梗的产地分布

桔梗的产地主要分布于东北、华北、华东、华中各省以及广东、广西(北部)、贵州、云南东南部(蒙自、砚山、文山)、四川(平武、凉山以东)、陕西。朝鲜、日本、俄罗斯的远东和东西伯利亚地区的南部也有。

2012年6月,安徽省太和县被中国食品工业协会花卉食品专业委员会誉名为“中国桔梗之乡”。

桔梗的种植前景

桔梗野生分布在全国各地均有,目前市场上野生桔梗干品每公斤16元左右,全国仅存在内蒙的赤峰、安徽太和县、山东的淄博三大产区,近几年由于连年种植,产量一降再降(桔梗怕连作),有的地方由原来的万亩基地到现在仅存几千亩了。需大于供的矛盾造成了桔梗的价格上涨,干品7元/公斤涨到目前的16元/公斤,鲜品出口级从每公斤3元涨至目前的每公斤5元。

从文中可以看出,随着桔梗需求量的不断增加,而桔梗老产地的种植面积的不断下降,桔梗的需求市场价格也在不断的上升,但是桔梗的市场价格相对于其他的一些中药材价格还是稍逊一筹,相信在不久的未来,桔梗的种植效益会不断攀升。


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  6. 当前时间: 2019-12-10 07:49:40
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  8. 请求路径: /klk/8115.html
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