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韭黄的播种和肥水管理

时间:10-30来源:农业旅游作者:农业旅游

韭黄的播种和肥水管理

韭黄也称“韭芽”、“黄韭芽”、“黄韭”,俗称“韭菜白”,为韭菜经软化栽培变黄的产品。韭菜隔绝光线,完全在黑暗中生长,因无阳光供给,不能进行光合作用,合成叶绿素,就会变成黄色,称之为“韭黄”。因不见阳光而呈黄白色,其营养价值要逊于韭菜。属百合科多年生草本植物,以种子和叶等入药。具健胃、提神、止汗固涩、补肾助阳、固精等功效。

韭黄含丰富的蛋白质,糖,矿物质钙、铁和磷,维生素A原、维生素B2、维生素c和尼克酸,以及甙类和苦味质等。具有驱寒散瘀,增强体力作用,并能增进食欲,还能续筋骨,疗损伤。但阴虚内热及目疾之人忌食。

《本草纲目》记载“韭黄”有固肾缩尿之功效。

韭菜根味辛,性温;入肝、胃、肾经。有温中开胃、行气活血、补肾助阳、散瘀的功效。韭菜叶味甘、辛、咸,性温,入肝、胃、肾经。温中行气,散瘀解毒。韭菜种子味辛、咸、性温,入肝、肾经。补肝肾,暖腰膝,壮阳固精。全韭可补肾益胃,充肺气,散瘀行滞,安五脏,行气血,止汗固涩,干呃逆。食疗还可以起到主治阳痿、早泄、遗精、多尿、腹中冷痛、胃中虚热、泄泻、白浊、经闭、白带异常、腰膝隐痛和产后出血等病症。

韭黄的播种

1)种子准备 

一般只用上一年生产的新种子。播种可以播干籽,也可浸种催芽。早春气温偏低,应播干种子;初夏气温升高时,一般浸种催芽。即播种前5~6天将种子浸泡在30℃~~40℃温水中并搅拌,清除瘪籽,换温水后再浸24个小时,然后清水冲洗,稍晾干后用湿纱布包裹放到15℃~20℃处催芽。催芽期间每天用清水淘洗一次,3~4天待胚根露出即可播种。

2)播种时间及播种量 

生产韭黄可分春、秋两季播种,以春播为好。只要月平均气温稳定通过5℃,播种的韭苗就能健壮生长。湖南省一般在3月中旬到4月中旬播种,最迟不能推至立夏。否则,气温高,难管理,生长不良。总之,抓住机遇,适时早播是延长韭苗生产期和保证全苗的有效措施。

播种量,直播的每666.7平方米需种1.8~2千克,育苗移栽的则为1.3~1.5千克,多采用直播。

3)播种方法 

播种前在畦面上按73~80厘米的行距开东西向的底面平整的播种沟。沟下底宽13厘米,口宽20厘米,沟深17厘米。

播种时,先施磷肥、复合肥和钾肥的混合肥料于播种沟内,施肥量是每666.7平方米50~100千克。施肥后,用锄头稍挖松底面,捣碎,将肥料混入土中,然后把底在整平并铺薄薄的一层细沙。为了使播种均匀,种子入土深浅一致,出苗整齐,还须特制一种压板(长100厘米,宽10厘米,一头翘起并系上绳子的木板)。

置于播种沟内中央,一人在板上轻轻压住,另一人在前缓慢牵引拖压,使沟中出现一道印痕,将种子均匀播于印痕中。覆盖一层1厘米的细泥沙,然后施人畜粪作盖籽肥,浓度及用量视天气而定。晴天每666.7平方米施800千克,加水50%;雨天可多施,用量是1000千克,不加水。为防雨水冲洗和保持湿润,在上再加一层碎稻草或整草覆盖。

韭黄的肥水管理

种植韭黄的菜农有“晴三天小旱,晴五天大旱”和“韭菜土不能开拆”之说。说明供给充足的水肥,保持土壤经常湿润状态对韭黄生长是很重要的。既有利于分蘖和叶片的生长,增加当年的产量,还有增加来年产量,延迟植株衰老的作用。并可使叶片组织柔嫩,达到提高品质的目的。春播韭苗必须在播种后视天气情况浇水,天干时每天早晚各浇一次,保持湿润,使种子发芽快、出苗早。一般干籽播后6~10天可发芽出土,这时整草覆盖的要及时揭去,施一次一成的腐熟稀人畜粪。

当韭苗长到6~10厘米高时,追施一次二成的人畜粪。20天后,随气温上升逐渐降低施肥浓度,但要增加施肥次数和总量。第7天施一次一成的人畜粪。苗高30~40厘米时,加大施肥浓度,一般为三成的人畜粪,每50千克还可加0.2~0.3千克尿素,促使韭苗快速生长,假茎粗壮及叶片宽厚。如遇干旱,则须放水沟灌跑水,待缩水后施五成的人畜粪。


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  5. 当前页面: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.fjhnews.com\index.php
  6. 当前时间: 2019-12-10 07:48:35
  7. 当前网协: 3.95.131.208
  8. 请求路径: /xpr/8106.html
  9. 运行时间: 0.2932
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