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金针菇如何栽培能高产_农业网_农业新闻

时间:10-19来源:农业旅游作者:农业旅游

金针菇如何栽培能高产

金针菇学名毛柄金钱菌,又称毛柄小火菇、构菌、朴菇、冬菇、朴菰

、冻菌、金菇、智力菇等,英文为:“Enoki

Mushroom”。植物学名为Flammulina

velutiper

(Fr.)

Sing。因其菌柄细长,似金针菜,故称金针菇,属伞菌目白蘑科针金菇属,是一种菌藻地衣类。金针菇具有很高的药用食疗作用。金针菇在自然界广为分布,中国、日本、俄罗斯、欧洲、北美洲、澳大利亚等地均有分布。在中国北起黑龙江,南至云南,东起江苏,西至新疆均适合金针菇的生长。

金针菇不含叶绿素,不具有光合作用,不能制造碳水化合物,但完全可在黑暗环境中生长,必须从培养基中吸收现成的有机物质,如碳水化合物、蛋白质和脂肪的降解物,为腐生营养型,是一种异养生物,属担子菌类。金针菇是一种木材腐生菌,易生长在柳、榆、白杨树等阔叶树的枯树干及树桩上。

江苏灌南、河北、安阳、林州等。河北石家庄灵寿大量种植白金针菇,每到十一二月份当量产销各地。据测定,金针菇氨基酸的含量非常丰富,高于一般菇类,尤其是赖氨酸的含量特别高,赖氨酸具有促进儿童智力发育的功能。金针菇干品中含蛋白质8.87%,碳水化合物60.2%,粗纤维达7.4%,经常食用可防治溃疡病。有研究又表明,金针菇内所含的一种物质具有很好的抗癌作用。金针菇既是一种美味食品,又是较好的保健食品,金针菇的国内外市场日益广阔。金针菇人工栽培技术并不复杂,只要能控制好环境条件,就容易获得稳定可靠的产量。

金针菇如何栽培能高产?

一、改宽袋栽培为窄袋栽培

许多人认为,采用25厘米×50厘米的塑料袋栽培金针菇为好。但实际上宽袋易感染杂菌,而且菇蕾少时子实体容易弯曲,影响产品质量,达不到盖小、柄长、色浅、肥嫩的要求。所以,还是以17厘米×33厘米的塑料袋为好。

二、改高压灭菌为延时常压灭菌

金针菇在维生素B1、维生素B2含量丰富的培养料上生长速度较快,粉孢子数量较少。但维生素B1不耐热,在温度达到120℃以上时容易分解,所以培养料应进行常压灭菌。为了确保菌种不感染杂菌,可将灭菌时间由10-12小时延长到13-18小时。

三、改传统立式出菇为卧式两头出菇

装料后在塑料袋两头接种并各留15厘米左右的塑料膜,轻装轻压,然后扎紧袋口卧式摆放4层左右发菌。此法既可保证出菇质量,又可节省菇房面积,可使每平方米菇房产量增加70%以上。

四、改一次性解袋为控制解袋

进行两头扎口封闭式发菌培养时,由于袋内氧气浓度低,若按常规方法应等到菌丝生长成熟、吐出黄球时再解袋,这势必影响其生长。因此,要随时注意袋内菌丝生长情况,一旦菌丝生长缓慢,就要及时解袋。但此时切勿全部撑开袋口,应酌情慢慢撑开袋口,等到菇柄长至8厘米左右时再将袋口全部撑开,以保证出菇过程中菇体所需的温度、湿度及氧气的浓度。在这一过程中,应防止菇体被压迫而弯曲生长。

五、改放任菇柄伸长为红色弱光诱导

金针菇子实体具有很强的趋光性,因此在菌袋发好菌上架以后,可以在两排墙的正中上方,每隔4米左右吊装1个15瓦的红色灯泡,灯泡产生的垂直光可诱导菌丝成束地向着光的方向横生。但此时应将门窗进行遮光处理,以防菇体乱长、倒伏和弯曲。

六、改出菇期乱加营养为科学施用

很多菇农在出菇期都要施用生长调节剂及其他营养物质,以促进菇体生长,但往往因不得其法而效果不明显甚至抑制菇体生长。

实践证明,出菇期喷施浓度为0.5%的三十烷醇溶液,可增产17%以上,但应特别注意使用浓度。采完两期菇后,再注入稀释500-1000倍的粪肥水于袋中,可增产15%-20%。


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  1. 模型: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.fjhnews.com/twcms/model/
  2. 视图: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.fjhnews.com/twcms/view/default/article_show.htm
  3. 控制器: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.fjhnews.com/twcms/control/show_control.class.php
  4. 日志目录: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.fjhnews.com/twcms/runtime/logs/
  5. 当前页面: D:\www\xumu\pc\www.fjhnews.com\index.php
  6. 当前时间: 2019-11-19 08:26:47
  7. 当前网协: 3.234.210.89
  8. 请求路径: /zxt/8078.html
  9. 运行时间: 0.2988
  10. 内存开销: 1.44 MB
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